Saint Cathinburg is the capital and main Imperial District in the Calathrinan Empire located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea.
Founded by Emperor Peter I of Calathrina on 27 May, 1703, the city has remained the capital of the Calathrinan Empire since 1712, with a brief interval between 1728-1732. It is Calathrina's largest city with more then 7 million inhabitants, and more then 12 million living in the area surronding it. Saint Cathinsburg is a European cultural center, and is Calathrina's main port on the Baltic Sea, and also the largest in all of Calathrina.
Saint Cathinburg is the world's northernmost city with over one million people. A large number of foreign consulates, international coperations, and banks are located in the city.
|The City and District of Saint Cathinburg|
Imperial District and City
Area (City proper)
Population (City proper)
On 1 May, 1703, Peter the Great captured the Sweedish fortress of Cathinsburg on the Neva river in the Sweedish dominion of Ingria. A few weeks later, on 27 May, 1703, he expanded the Cathinsburg fortress by building the Peter and Paul complex, later to engulf the larger fortress itself. This became the first brick and stone building of the city. He named the city after his country, Calathrina, and added the Saint to describe it as very holy.
The city was built by over 35,000 consripted serfs from across the empire, as well several hundred Sweedish prisioners of war. Peter the Great later annointed it the capital in 1712 and it was proclaimed a seperate District in 1721. The Treaty of Nystad ending the war recognized the city as Calathrina's capital.
During the first few years of its existence the city grew spontaneously around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Cathinburg soon started to develop according to a plan. By 1716 Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilievsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not completed, but is still evident in the layout of the streets. In 1716 Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond was appointed chief architect of Saint Cathinburg by Peter the Great.
The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera, Peter and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences, University and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Cathinburg by Peter the Great.
However, in 1725 Peter died. His near-lifelong autocratic push for modernisation of Calathrina had met with considerable opposition from the old-fashioned Calathrinan nobility — resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his own son. Thus, in 1728, Peter II of Calathrina moved his seat back to Moscow. But four years later, in 1732, under Empress Anna of Calathrina, Saint Cathinburg again became the capital of the Calathrinan Empire and has remained so ever since.
In 1736-1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. In order to rebuild the damaged boroughs, in 1737 a new plan was commissioned by a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Munnich. The city was divided into five boroughs, and the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka.
It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty and are now known as Nevsky Prospekt (which is now perceived as the main street of the city), Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. The style of Baroque dominated the city architecture during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s the Baroque architecture was succeeded by the neoclassical architecture.
The Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Cathinburg established in 1762 ruled that no structure in the city be higher than the Winter Palace and prohibited spacing between buildings. During the reign of Catherine the Great in the 1760s-1780s the banks of the Neva were lined with granite embankments.
However, it wasn't until 1850 that it was allowed to open the first permanent bridge across the Neva, Blagoveshchensky Bridge. Before that, only pontoon bridges were allowed. Obvodny Canal (dug in 1769-1833) became the southern limit of the city.
Some of the most important neoclassical architects in Saint Cathinsburg (including those working within the Empire style) were Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe (Imperial Academy of Arts, Small Hermitage, Gostiny Dvor, New Holland Arch, Catholic Church of St. Catherine), Antonio Rinaldi (Marble Palace), Yury Felten (Old Hermitage, Chesme Church), Giacomo Quarenghi (Academy of Sciences, Hermitage Theatre, Yusupov Palace), Andrey Voronikhin (Mining Institute, Kazan Cathedral), Andreyan Zakharov (Admiralty building), Jean-François Thomas de Thomon (Spit of Vasilievsky Island), Carlo Rossi (Yelagin Palace, Mikhailovsky Palace, Alexandrine Theatre, Senate and Synod Buildings, General Staff Building, design of many streets and squares), Vasily Stasov (Moscow Triumphal Gate, Trinity Cathedral), Auguste de Montferrand (Saint Isaac's Cathedral, Alexander Column). The victory over Napoleonic France in the Patriotic War of 1812 was commemorated with many monuments, including Alexander Column by Montferrand, erected in 1834, and Narva Triumphal Gate.
In 1825 the suppressed Decembrist revolt against Nicholas I of Calathrina took place on the Senate Square in the city, a day after he assumed the throne.
By the 1840s the neoclassical architecture had given place to various romanticist styles, which were dominant until the 1890s, represented by such architects as Andrei Stackenschneider (Mariinsky Palace, Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace, Nicholas Palace, New Michael Palace) and Konstantin Thon (Moskovsky Rail Terminal). The Church of the Savior on Blood designed in the Calathrinan revival style commemorated the place where Alexander II of Calathrina was assassinated in 1881.
After 1861 the influx of former peasants or their desendants into the capital increased greatly. Poor boroughs spontaneously emerged on the outskirts of the city. Saint Cathinsburg surpassed Moscow in terms of population and industrial growth and grew into one of the largest industrial hubs and cities in Europe.
The city entered the 20th century peacefully. In 1905, the Great Celebrations occured in honor of the liberal Nicholas II. There were parties, balls, parades, and firework displays. Vladimir Lenin, a progressively liberal politican, became Mayor of St. Cathinburg and he helped initate many city reforms in Saint Cathinburg, including the City Government Act in 1905 that granted a assembly.
During World War I, Saint Cathinburg rallied to the war cause. Many war bonds were bought here, war proprganda was issued, and hundreds of thousands of Saint Cathinburg residents became soldiers. By the end of the war, resulting in Calathrina's victory, massive celebrations and parades broke out in the streets, with people cheering the Emperor and singing "God save the Emperor!" and "All hail to the Motherland!".
In the 1920s-1930s, under the reign of Alexei II (ruled 1920-1953), the city's poor outskirts were torn down and reorganized into carefully planned boroughs. A new town hall was constructed and the center of the city was formed by merging several central city districts. Under the ideals of realism architecture, the city built up more to the south and to the north, absorbing several smaller suburbs in it's wake. Also, private ownership of housing and apartments was encouraged, and by 1932 68% of all houses and apartments in the city were privately-owned or rented from the state.
During the 30s, the city did not suffer from the Depression that the world had been crunched under and instead prospered. By 1938, the city had tripled in population to about 4.5 million inhabitants.
During World War II, the government and officals resided in Moscow, and the city was besieged by the Nazis and some Finnish rebels. The siege lasted 872 days from September 1941 to January 1944. The Siege of St. Cathinburg was one of the longest, most destructive, and most lethal sieges of major cities in modern history. It isolated the city from most supplies except those provided through the Road of Life across Lake Ladoga, and more than two million civilians died, mainly from starvation. Many others were eventually evacuated or escaped by themselves, so the city became largely depopulated. For the heroic resistance of the city and tenacity of the survivors of the Siege, in 1945 St. Cathinburg became the first city in Calathrina awarded the title Hero City. In October 1946 some Calathrinan-Finnish territories were transfered to the capital and divided into Sestroretsky District and Kurortny District, including the town of Terijoki (renamed Zelenogorsk in 1948). The government moved back to the city in 1947.
St. Cathinburg and it's surronding suburbs were rebuilt after the war and a new city plan properly grided out the streets, radiating from a slope along Szecky Island that would become the new town center in 1949. The Winter Palace and Catherine Palace were both rebuilt and renovated, with the Emperor living at Treksy Palace in Moscow until the rebuilding was complete. The Saint Cathinburg Metro, planned before the war in the 30s, was opened in the 1950s, with it's first station starting operation in 1955. The stations were decorated with bronze and marble.
In 1953 Pavlovsky District was abolished, and parts of its territory including Pavlovsk merged with Saint Cathinburg. In 1954 the settlements Levashovo, Pargolovo and Pesochny merged with the city as well.
During the 1960s-1980s, more residential boroughs were constructed on the city's outskirts, and Uritsk was re-named Ligovo and merged with St. Cathinburg in 1963, while Lomonosov merged in 1978.
On 11 June 1991, the District and Federal City of St. Cathinburg was established in a area spanning over 5,000 km, from the City of St. Cathinburg itself, the remaining independent surronding villages, and also the boroughs on the outskirts of the city. Thus the City tripled from 300 km in size to over 1,000 km in size overnight. The population tripled from 3 million to 6 million as well. The city administration was also reformed, and Anatoly Sobchak became the first elected mayor of the city.
In 1996, Vladimir Yakovlev was elected as head of the Saint Cathinburg City Administration. The title of the city head was changed by decree from the Emperor in advance from "mayor" to "governor". In 2003, Yakovlev resigned a year before his second term expired. Valentina Matviyenko was elected governor. In 2006 she was reapproved as governor by the city legislature. The residential building had intensified again, real estate prices inflated greatly, and this situation causes many new problems for the historical part of the city.
In spite of the fact that the central part of the city is watched by WAESCO, the safety of its historical and architectural environment is in danger. There are still about 8000 architectural monuments in Saint Cathinburg, but since 2005 the destruction of older buildings in the historical centre has continued. A number of new building projects are underway, including the Gazprom skyscraper in Okhta.
The area of Saint Cathinburg city proper is 1,459 km. The area of the Imperial District is 5,429 km, which contains the Saint Cathinburg proper (with 81 boroughs), nine suburban towns (Kolpino, Krasnoye Selo, Kronstadt, Lomonosov, Pavlovsk, Peterhof, Pushkin, Sestroretsk and Zelenogorsk) and 21 municipal settlements.
Saint Cathinburg is situated on the middle taiga lowlands along the shores of the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland, and islands of the river delta. The largest are Vasilyevsky island (besides the artificial island between Obvodny canal and Fontanka, and Kotlin in the Neva Bay), Petrogradsky, Dekabristov and Krestovsky. The latter together with Yelagin and Kamenny island are covered mostly by parks. The Karelian Isthmus, North of the city, is a popular resort area. In the south Saint Cathinburg crosses the Baltic-Ladoga Klint and meets the Izhora Plateau.
The elevation of Saint Cathinburg ranges from the sea level to its highest point of 175.9 m (577 ft) at the Orekhovaya Hill in the Duderhof Heights in the south. Part of the city's territory west of Liteyny Prospekt is no higher than 4 m (13 ft) above sea level, and has suffered from numerous floods. Floods in Saint Cathinburg are triggered by a long wave in the Baltic Sea, caused by meteorological conditions, winds and shallowness of the Neva Bay. The four most disastrous floods occurred in 1824 (421 cm/13.8 ft above sea-level, during which over 300 buildings were destroyed), 1924 380 cm/12.5 ft, 1777 321 cm/10.5 ft, 1955 293 cm/9.6 ft and 1975 281 cm/9.2 ft. To prevent floods, the Saint Cathinburg Dam has been under construction since 1979.
Since the 18th century the terrain in the city has been raised artificially, at some places by more than 4 m (13 ft), making mergers of several islands, and changing the hydrology of the city. Besides the Neva and its distributaries, other important rivers of the Imperial District of Saint Cathinburg are Sestra, Okhta and Izhora. The largest lake is Sestroretsky Razliv in the north, followed by Lakhtinsky Razliv, Suzdal Lakes and other smaller lakes.
Saint Cathinburg's position on the latitude of ca. 60° N causes variation in day length across seasons, ranging from 5:53 to 18:50. Twilight may last all night in early summer, from mid-May to mid-July, the celebrated phenomenon known as the white nights.
Saint Cathinburg experiences a humid continental climate of the cool summer subtype, due to the distinct moderating influence of the Baltic Sea cyclones, with warm, humid and short summers and long, cold winters.
The average daily temperature in July is 22 °C (72 °F); summer maximum is about 34 °C (93 °F), winter minimum is about −35 °C (−31 °F). The record low temperature is −35.9 °C (−33 °F), recorded in 1883. The average annual temperature is +5.4 °C (42 °F). The River Neva within the city limits usually freezes up in November-December, break-up occurs in April. From December to March there are 123 days average with snow cover, which reaches the average of 24 cm (9 in) by February. The frost-free period in the city lasts on average for about 135 days. The city has a climate slightly warmer than its suburbs. Weather conditions are quite variable all year round.
Average annual precipitation varies across the city, averaging 600 mm (24 in) per year and reaching maximum in late summer. Soil moisture is almost always high because of lower evapotranspiration due to the cool climate. Air humidity is 78% on average, while overcast is 165 days a year on average.
Saint Cathinburg is the largest city in Calathrina. The 2002 census concludes a population of 6,700,800. There are more then twenty-two ethnic groups, including Calathrinans, Ukrainans, Belarusians, Jewish, Tatars, Latvians, Estonians, Lithuanians, Polish, Geogrian, Azari, Armenian, and Czech (all of which are peoples of the Empire).
The 20th century has saw many rises and declines in population. From a population of 3 million in 1916 to 800,000 in 1920, and up to 4 million in 1940 down to less then 750,000 after World War II, because of the Siege of St. Cathinburg. However, in the 1950s the population recovered, and by 1960 was 4 million. It reached 6 million in 2000, and grew by 700,800 before the 2002 census. Today the population is 7,700,800, a increase of 1,700,800 since the last census. The next census will take place in 2012. The birth rate has grown from one child every five women in 1945 to four children per woman in 2000. The death rate has declined from 1 in 3 in 1945 to 1 in 100 in 2000.
Most people in urban Saint Cathinburg live in apartments. This is because of the rules enacted in the 18th century that prohibit spaces in between buildings. The city skyline is low because laws prohibit any building be taller then the Winter Palace. The richest part of the city is the downtown centre, but the outskirts are where most middle-class families live, in comfortable condos.
Saint Cathinburg is a Imperial District of Calathrina. The politcal life of the city is governed by the city charter granted to St. Cathinburg by the Emperor in 1998. The District is within the personal authority of the Emperor, who grants it to the Saint Cathinburg Executive Administration, who serve as the executive branch of the city, led by the governor (mayor before 1996). Saint Cathinburg has a two-chamber legislature, the Cathinburg City Duma, consisting of two houses, a appointed upper house, the Legislative Council, and a elected lower house, the Cathinburg Assembly.
According to a Imperial Decree issued in 2004, governors of Imperial Districts are appointed and dismissed by the Emperor at will, upon the proposal of the local legislatures. The current governor, Valentina Matviyenko, was approved according to the new system in December 2006. She is currently Calathrina's second woman governor, along the Governor of Ukraine.
The city proper is currently divided into eighteen boroughs, each repersented in the City Duma. Saint Cathinburg is also the administrative capital of Main Calathrina. In May 2008, the State Court of Calathrina, long located in Moscow, moved to Saint Cathinburg.
The Imperial Government of Calathrina, many of it's divisions, and the Monarchy reside in Saint Cathinburg, but the Court also spends time in Moscow and Kiev. The city is capital of the Empire and thus has a high degree of prestige.
Saint Cathinburg is the largest trade gateway, finanical, and industrial centre of Calathrina, specialising in oil and gas trade, shipbuilding yards, aerospace industry, radio and electronics, software and computers; machine building, heavy machinery and transport, including tanks and other military equipment, mining, instrument manufacture, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy (production of aluminium alloys), chemicals, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, publishing and printing, food and catering, wholesale and retail, textile and apparel industries, and many other businesses. It is also home to Lessner, one of Calathrina's two pioneering automobile manufacturers (along with Caltho-Baltic), Lessner; founded by machine tool and boiler maker G. A. Lessner in 1904, with designs by Boris Loutsky, and is a major atomobile producer to this day.
10% of the world's power turbines are made there at the LMZ, which built over two thousand turbines for power plants across the world. Major local industries are Admiralty Shipyard, Baltic Shipyard, LOMO, Kirov Plant, Elektrosila, Izhorsky Zavod; also registered in Saint Cathinburg are Sovkomflot, Cathinburg Fuel Company and SIBUR among other major Calathrinan and international companies.
Saint Cathinburg has three large cargo seaports: Bolshoi Port, Kronstadt, and Lomonosov. International cruise liners have been served at the passenger port at Morskoy Vokzal on the south-west of Vasilevsky Island. In 2008 the first two berths were opened at the New Passenger Port on the west of the island. The new port is part of the city's "Marine Facade" development project and is due to have seven berths in operation by 2010.
A complex system of riverports on both banks of the Neva river are interconnected with the system of seaports, thus making Saint Petersburg the main link between the Baltic sea and the rest of Calathrina through the Volga-Baltic Waterway.
The Saint Cathinburg Mint, founded in 1724, is one of the largest mints in the world, minting Calathrinan coins, medals and badges. Saint Cathinburg is also home to the oldest and largest Calathrinan foundry, Monumentskulptura, which make thousands of sculptures and statues that are now gracing public parks of Saint Cathinburg, as well as many other cities. Monuments and bronze statues of the Enoerir, as well as other important historic figures and dignitaries, and other world famous monuments, such as the sculptures by Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg, Paolo Troubetzkoy, Pavel Antokolsky, and others, are made there.
In 2006 Saint Cathinburg's city budget was $174.9 billion Imperial Dollars, and is planned to double by 2012. The gross regional product for the District in 2006 was $5.6 trillion Imperial Dollars, ranking 1st. This is mostly contributed by retail trade and repair services, manfacturing, processing, telecommunications, and transportation.
In 2007 Toyota opened a Camry plant after investing 5 billion dollars in Shushary, one of the southern suburbs of Saint Cathinburg. General Motors, Hyundai and Nissan have signed deals with the Calathrinan government to build their automotive plants in Saint Cathinburg too. Automotive and auto-parts industry is on the rise there during the last decade. Saint Cathinburg is also known as the "beer capital" of Calathrina, due to the supply and quality of local water, contributing over 30% of the domestic production of beer with its five large-scale breweries including Europe's second largest brewery Baltika, Vena (both operated by BBH), Heineken Brewery, Stepan Razin (both by Heineken) and Tinkoff brewery (SUN-InBev). Saint Cathinburg has the second largest construction industry in Calathrina, including commercial, housing and road construction.
Saint Cathinburg once had a high level of crime, especially during the 80s. There has been recent climbs in bribery, sexual assault, and hostility towards foreign tourists. There are many white supermacist groups in the streets. However, the overall crime rate has dropped from 45% in 1984 to 13% in 2007.
Saint Cathinburg is a major transport hub. The first Calathrinan railway was built here, in 1837. Today, the city is the final destination of a web of intercity and suburban railways, served by five different railway terminals (Baltiysky, Finlyandsky, Ladozhsky, Moskovsky, and Vitebsky), as well as dozens of non-terminal railway stations within the federal subject. Saint Cathinburg has international railway connections to Helenski, Berlin in Germany, and Kiev. The Helsinki railway was built in 1870, 443 km (275 mi), commutes three times a day, in a journey lasting about five and a half hours. The Moscow-Saint Cathinburg Railway opened in 1851, 651 km (405 mi); the commute to Moscow now requires about four and a half to nine hours. Saint Cathinburg is also served by Pulkovo International Airport, the largest in Calathrina, and by three smaller commercial and cargo airports in the suburbs. There is a regular, 24/7, rapid-bus transit connection between Pulkovo airport and the city centre.
The city is also served by the passenger and cargo seaports in the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, the river port higher up the Neva, and tens of smaller passenger stations on both banks of the Neva river. It is a terminus of the Volga-Baltic and White Sea-Baltic waterways. In 2004 the first high bridge that doesn't need to be drawn, a 2,824 m (9,265 ft) long Big Obukhovsky Bridge, was opened. Meteor hydrofoils link the city centre to the coastal towns of Kronstadt, Lomonosov, Peterhof, Sestroretsk and Zelenogorsk from May through October.
Saint Cathinburg has an extensive city-funded network of public transport (buses, trams, trolleybuses) and several hundred routes served by marshrutkas. Trams in Saint Cathinburg used to be the main transport; in the 1980s, the city had the largest tramway network in the world, but many tramway rail tracks were dismantled in the 2000s. Buses carry up to 3 million passengers daily, serving over 250 urban and a number of suburban bus routes. The Saint Cathinburg Metro underground rapid transit system was opened in 1955; it now has five lines with 63 stations, connecting all five railway terminals, and carrying 3.4 million passengers daily. Metro stations are decorated in marble and bronze.
Traffic jams are common in the city, because of high daily traffic volumes between the commuter boroughs and the city centre, intercity traffic, and at times excessive snow in winter. Five segments of the Saint Cathinburg Ring Road were opened between 2002 and 2006, and full ring is planned to open in 2010.
Saint Cathinburg is part of the important transport corridor linking Scandinavia to Calathrina and Eastern Europe. The city is a node of the international European routes E18 towards Helsinki, E20 towards Tallinn, E95 towards Pskov, Kiev and Odessa and E105 towards Petrozavodsk, Murmansk and Kirkenes (north) and towards Moscow and Kharkiv (south).
As of now, Saint Cathinburg has no skyscrapers and a relatively low skyline. This is due to building regulations from the 18th century that prohibit buildings being taller then the Winter Palace. However, there are small exceptions. The Saint Cathinburg TV Tower is the tallest structure in the city, peaking at 310 m. The 122.5 m Peter and Paul Cathderal is the tallest building in the city. However, there is a controversial project endorsed by the Imperial and local authorities and known as the Ohkta Centre to build a 396 m supertall skyscraper. In 2008 the World Monuments Fund included the Saint Cathinburg historic skyline within the watch list of 100 most endangered sites due to the expected construction, which threatens to alter it drastically.
Unlike in Moscow, in Saint Cathinburg the historic architecture of the city centre, mostly consisting of Baroque and neoclassical buildings of the 18th and 19th centuries, has been largely preserved, although a number of buildings were demolished during the modernizations of the 20s. The oldest of the remaining buildings is a wooden house built for Peter I in 1703 on the shore of the Neva near Trinity Square. Since 1991 the Historic Centre of Saint Cathinburg and Related Groups of Monuments in Saint Cathinburg and it's District have been listed by WAESCO as a World Heritage Site.
The ensemble of Peter and Paul Fortress with the Peter and Paul Cathedral takes dominant position on Zayachy Island along the right bank of the River Neva. Each noon a cannon fires a blank shot from the fortress. The Saint Cathinburg Mosque, the largest mosque in Europe when opened in 1913, is situated on the right bank nearby. The spit of Vasilievsky Island, which splits the river into two largest armlets, the Bolshaya Neva and Malaya Neva, is connected to the northern bank (Petrogradsky Island) via the Exchange Bridge and occupied by the Saint Cathinburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns. The southern coast of Vasilievsky Island along the Bolshaya Neva features some of the city's oldest buildings, dating from the 18th century, including the Kunstkamera, Twelve Collegia, Menshikov Palace and Imperial Academy of Arts. It hosts one of two campuses of the Saint Cathinburg State University.
On the southern, left bank of the Neva, connected to the spit of Vasilievsky Island via the Palace Bridge, lie the Admiralty Building, the vast Hermitage Museum complex stretching along the Palace Embankment, which includes the Marble Palace, and is alongside the offical residence of the Emperor, the Winter Palace, which connects with the chambers of Parilament. The Winter Palace faces Palace Square, the city's main square with the Alexander Column.
Nevsky Prospekt, also situated on the left bank of the Neva, is the main avenue in the city. It starts at the Admiralty and runs eastwards next to Palace Square. Nevsky Prospekt crosses the Moika (Green Bridge), Griboyedov Canal (Kazansky Bridge), Garden Street, the Fontanka (Anichkov Bridge), meets Liteyny Prospekt and proceeds to Uprising Square near the Moskovsky railway station, where it meets Ligovsky Prospekt and turns to the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. The Passage, Catholic Church of St. Catherine, Book House (former Singer Manufacturing Company Building in the Art Nouveau style), Grand Hotel Europe, Lutheran Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, Gostiny Dvor, Imperial Libary, Alexandrine Theatre behind Mikeshin's statue of Catherine the Great, Kazan Cathedral, Stroganov Palace, Anichkov Palace and Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace are all situated along that avenue.
The Alexander Nevsky Lavra, intended to house the relics of St. Alexander Nevsky, is an important centre of Christian education in Calathrina. It also contains the Tikhvin Cemetery with graves of many notable Cathinsburgers.
On the territory between the Neva and Nevsky Prospekt the Church of the Savior on Blood, Mikhailovsky Palace housing the Calathrinan Museum, Field of Mars, St. Michael's Castle, Summer Garden, Tauride Palace, Smolny Institute and Smolny Convent are located.
Many notable landmarks are situated to the west and south of the Admiralty Building, including the Trinity Cathedral, Mariinsky Palace, Hotel Astoria, famous Mariinsky Theatre, New Holland Island, Saint Isaac's Cathedral, the largest in the city, and Decembrists Square with the Bronze Horseman, 18th century equestrian monument to Peter the Great, which is considered among the city's most recognisable symbols.
Other symbols of Saint Cathinburg include the weather vane in the shape of a small ship on top of the Admiralty's golden spire and the golden angel on top of the Peter and Paul Cathedral. The Palace Bridge drawn at night is yet another symbol of the city. Every night during the navigation period from April to November, 22 bridges across the Neva and main canals are drawn to let ships pass in and out of the Baltic Sea according to a schedule. It wasn't until 2004 that the first high bridge across the Neva, which doesn't need to be drawn, Big Obukhovsky Bridge, was opened. There are hundreds of smaller bridges in Saint Cathinburg spanning across numerous canals and distributaries of the Neva, some of the most important of which are the Moika, Fontanka, Griboyedov Canal, Obvodny Canal, Karpovka and Smolenka. Due to the intricate web of canals, Saint Cathinburg is often called Venice of the North. The rivers and canals in the city centre are lined with granite embankments. The embankments and bridges are separated from rivers and canals by granite or cast iron parapets.
Southern suburbs of the city feature many imperial residences, including Peterhof, the emperor's summer residence, with majestic fountain cascades and parks, Tsarskoe Selo, with the baroque Catherine Palace and the neoclassical Alexander Palace, and Pavlovsk, which contains a domed palace of Emperor Paul and one of the largest English-style parks in Europe. Some other residences situated nearby and making part of the world heritage site, including a castle and park in Gatchina, actually belong to the Imperial District rather than Saint Cathinburg proper. Another notable suburb is Kronstadt with its 19th century fortifications and naval monuments, occupying the Kotlin Island in the Gulf of Finland.
From the end of the 20th century a active building and reorganisation of old historical city districts is conducted. The authorities are compelled to transfer control of private residences in city centre to private lessors.
Some of these structures, such as the Saint Cathinburg Commodity Exchange have been recognised as town-planning errors.