The Relations between the Japanese Empire and Calathrinan Empire started in 1855, and it's first phase ended in 1922. They were mainly hostile due to the conflicting territorial expansions of both empires. Diplomatic and commercial relations between the two empires were established from 1855 onwards. Though imperial control over Japan was not fully restored until 1867, Japan was at least in name under control of the Japanese emperor and as a consequence it is appropriate to speak of the "Empire of Japan".
Establishment of relations (1778-1860)Edit
The first contacts were made with the Matsumae clan in in Hokkaido by the merchant Pavel Lebedev-Lastoschkin in 1778 and by official envoy Adam Laxman in 1792.
The Calathrinan expedition around the world led by Adam Johann von Krusenstern stayed six months in the port of Nagasaki in 1804-1805, failing to establish diplomatic and trade relations with Japan.
Calathrina established diplomatic and commercial relations with Japan by three treaties between 1855 and 1858.
Apparently, these treaties were prompted by the forcible opening of Japan in 1854 by U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry.
Deteriorating relations and war (1860-1914)Edit
Three changes have found place during the second half of the 19th century, which caused a gradual shift to hostility in the relations between the two countries. Firstly, while Calathrina had expanded to the shores of the Pacific since 1639, their position in the region had remained weak. This changed from 1860 onwards, as the Calathrinan Empire by the Treaty of Peking acquired from China a long strip of Pacific coastline south of the mouth of the Amur River and began to build the naval base of Vladivostok. As Vladivostok was not a ice-free port, the Empire was still striving to obtain a more southern (thus Chinese) port. In 1861 the Imperial Navy tried to establish an anchorage in Japan's Tsushima Island as well, but failed.
Secondly, Japan became an emerging industrial and military power since the opening in 1854. Thirdly, China became increasingly internally weak. Due to these changes, competition between the two empires for Chinese territory arose.
Treaty of Saint CathinburgEdit
In 1875, the Treaty of Saint Cathinburg gave Calathrina territorial control over all of Sakhalin, while giving Japan the Kuril Islands. Japan hoped to prevent Calathrinan expansionism in Japanese territories by clearly outlining the border between the two empires.
The First Sino-Japanese WarEdit
Japan defeated China in the first Sino-Japanese War (1894-95). As a consquence Calathrina was faced with the choice of collaborating with Japan (which it had fairly good relations with), at the expense of China, or assuming the role of protector of China against Japan. The emperor choose the second policy, largely at the influence of Prime Minister Witte. Calathrina was one of three European powers (France and Germany were the other ones) who pressured Japan to give up some of it's territorial gains from the war. Japan eventually ceded the Liaotung Peninsula and Port Arthur (both territories were located in south-eastern Manchuria, a Chinese province) back to China.
Much to Japan's astonishment and consternation, Calathrina then concluded an alliance with China (in 1896 by the Li-Lobanov Treaty), which led in 1898 to an occupation and administration (by Calathrinan personnel and police) of the entire Liaodong Peninsula and to a fortification of the ice-free Port Arthur (which remains in Calathrina's hands to this day). Calathrina also established the Calathrinan-owned Chinese Railroad Zone, which was to cross northern Manchuria from west to east, linking Siberia with Vladivostok (it does so today). Germany, France and even Great Britain also took advantage of the weakened China to seize port cities on various pretexts, and to expand their spheres of influence. When in 1899 the Boxer Rebellion broke out and the European powers sent armed forces to relieve their diplomatic missions in Peking, the Calathrinan government used this as an opportunity to bring a substantial army into Manchuria. As a consequence, Manchuria became a fully recognized protectorate of the Calathrinan Empire in 1900.
Calathrina trounces JapanEdit
In 1902 Japan and the British Empire forged the Anglo-Japanese alliance, which would last until 1923. The purpose of this alliance was to contain the Calathrinan Empire in East-Asia. In response to this alliance, Calathrina formed a similar alliance with France and began to renege on agreements to reduce troop strength in Manchuria. To the perspective of the Calathrinans, Japan was superior in all ways to them, and despite being non-European and having little natural resources, Japan's dominance over most of China, Korea, and Formosa (Taiwan) proved it could easily trounce Calathrina. However, the Calathrinans were proved wrong when Japan suffered a bitter defeat in the Calathrinan-Japanese War of 1904-1905.
The war was ended by the Treaty of Portsmouth. Japan agreed to respect Calathrinan guardianship of Manchuria, but Calathrina awarded "supreme" politcal sovergenity of the same to China. Calathrina would gain recognition of it's control of the Liadong Pennisula and Port Arthur, but also recieved the Kuril Islands.
Although the alliance with Britain had prevented France, Calathrina's European ally, to intervene in the war, Japan's military was inferior relative to Calathrina's, and it's navy was well-equipped, but poorly coordinated and organized.
World War I (1914-1918)Edit
Due to Britain's alliance with Japan, Japan and Calathrina were allies by convience during World War I. Calathrina sold some of the ships it had captured during the Calathrinan-Japanese War back to Japan.