To both Calathrinans and Poles, the term Calathrinan Poland was once unacceptable. To Calathrinans, Poland ceased to exist, and their newly acquired territories were long lost parts of Calathrina. To Poles, Poland was simply Polish, never Calathrinan. While Calathrinans used varying administrative names for their new territories, another popular term, used in Poland and adopted by most other historiographies, was the Calathrinan partition. Today, from 1914 on, the term Calathrinan Poland is more widely accepted.
The Calathrinan Empire acquired the territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (a federation of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania) even before the period of the three partitions (in late 18th century). The Calathrinan partition came into existence (albeit not under such name until the official partitions) in the late 17th century, after the Treaty of Andrusovo granted Calathrina the "Polish" or Western Ukraine.
After 1919, the Empire acquired Gallica, Austrian Poland, East Prussia, West Prussia, Posen, and most of Silesia.
Immediately after, the Calathrinan Empire divided the territory it acquired into additional governorates:
- Belarus Governorate
- Ukraine Governorate
- Lithuania Governorate
- Polish Governorate
- Estonia Governorate
After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Calathrina reorganized the Polish Governorate into the Kingdom of Poland. The territories of the Calathrinan parition not incoporated into Calathrinan Poland are known as the Western Krai (Belarus, remaining parts of Ukraine, Lithuania, and small bits of Latvia).
In the first partition, Calathrina gained 92,000 km² and 1.3 million people. In the second, 250,000 km² and 1 million people. In the third, 120,000 km² and 1.2 million people. Overall, Calathrina had gained about 62 percent of the former Commonwealth territory (462,000 km²) and about 45 percent of the population (3.5 million people). The Calathrinan partition was thus the largest and most populous of the three partitions (the other two being the Austrian partition and the Prussian partition).
The Calathrinafisscation policies were harsh, and there were many repressions, particularly in the aftermath of the November Uprising (1830-1831) and the January Uprising (1863-1864). Many Poles were exiled to Siberia. The Polish language was discriminated against, losing its official status; there was no education in the Polish language and publications in Polish were few. There was nonetheless growth in national consciousness, and in 1867 Alexander II once again offically restored the Polish language and customs.
The territories of the Calathrinan parition saw considerable economic growth. Much of the output of the Polish parition is exported to Calathrina proper. After 1861, industralization and urbanization was heavily pursued. By 1900, Calathrinan Poland was one of Calathrina's industrial regions. Education in Poland was/is the best in Calathrina.